Narmer (Reign: ca. 2650 B.C. – 2632 B.C.)
Narmer, also known as Menes, unified Upper and Lower Egypt for the first time and, therefore, founded the first dynasty of a unified Egypt.
Khasekhemwy (Reign: 18 years, ca. 2690 B.C.)
Khasekhemwy ended the infighting of the second dynasty and reunited Upper and Lower Egypt after a civil war between the followers of the gods Horus and Set.
Djoser (Reign: 19 or 28 years, ca. 2670 B.C.)
Djoser (also read as Djeser and Zoser) is the builder of the Step Pyramid and is believed by most Egyptologists to be the founder of the third dynasty during the Old Kingdom.
Huni (Reign: ca. 2650 B.C. – 2632 B.C.)
Huni was the last pharaoh of the third dynasty during the Old Kingdom period.
Khufu (Reign: 2589 B.C. – 2566 B.C.)
Khufu was the second pharaoh of the fourth dynasty and is generally accepted as having commissioned the building of the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Khafra (Reign: 26 years, ca. 2570 B.C.)
The pharaoh Khafra is the son of Khufu and built the second-largest pyramid at Giza.
Sahure (Reign: 2487 B.C. – 2475 B.C.)
Sahure was the second king of ancient Egypt’s fifth dynasty. Historical records and Egyptian art show that Sahure established an ancient Egyptian navy and sent a fleet to the Land of Punt and traded with cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Mentuhotep II (Reign: c. 2046 B.C. – 1995 B.C.)
Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II was a pharaoh of the 11th dynasty who reigned for 51 years. During the 39th year on the throne, he reunited Egypt, thus ending the First Intermediary Period. Consequently, he is considered the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.
Senusret (Reign: 1971 B.C. – 1926 B.C.)
Senusret I, also Sesostris I and Senwosret I, was the second pharaoh of the 12th dynasty of Egypt. One of the most powerful kings of this dynasty, he maintained aggressive expansionist policies against Nubia and organized an expedition to a western desert oasis in the Libyan desert. Senusret I established diplomatic relations with some rulers of towns in Syria and Canaan.
Amenemhat III (Reign: c. 1860–1814 BC)
Amenemhat III, also spelled Amenemhet III, was a 12th dynasty pharaoh, whose reign is regarded as the golden age of the Middle Kingdom.
Hatshepsut (c. 1479 B.C. – 1458 B.C.)
Regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, Hatshepsut was the fifth ruler of the 18th dynasty. According to Egyptologist James Henry Breasted, she is also known as “the first great woman in history of whom we are informed.”
Ahmose II (Reign: 570 B.C. — 526 B.C.)
Ahmose II, or Amasis II, was a pharaoh of the 26th dynasty of Egypt, the successor of Apries at Sais. He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest.